CNC lathe machines work at low spindle speeds like 100 ~ 200 RPMs, and sometimes CNC lathe machines work at 5000 RPMs. This all speed selection is component operation dependent. Sometimes we have to work with bigger diameters or even when you are doing some kind of roughing operation so we normally will select a lower speed because this time we want power and rigidity.
For finish operations we normally select higher spindle RPMs. Normally CNC lathe machines come with Gear Box attached to the cnc lathe spindle and main motor. Normally CNC lathe come with two gears but bigger CNC lathe are equipped with bigger Gear Boxes with four gears. There are CNC lathe machines which have no Gear Box at all, so no gear selection is required for low spindle speed or higher spindle speed. There are CNC M Codes for gear selection.
CNC Gear Selection M Code M41
Low Gear Selection, Low Gear Range Selection.
CNC Gear Selection M Code M42
High Gear Selection, High Gear Range Selection. For heavy CNC lathe machines there might be CNC m codes M41, M42, M43, M44.